The Effect of E. scaber Extract to TNF-α and TGF-β on Mice under Carcinogen Treatment


  • Rizki Amalia Brawijaya University
  • Sri Widyarti Brawijaya University
  • Moch. Sasmito Djati Brawijaya University



Carcinogen compounds are the compounds that cause DNA damage and trigger cancer. TNF-α and TGF-β are cytokines produced by immune cells and serve to maintain body homeostasis. Elephantopus scaber is a plant that prevents the cancer progression, and improve the body's immune system, so this study was conducted to determine the effect of E. scaber extract on TNF-α and TGF-β after the administration of carcinogen compounds. The study was conducted by administering the carcinogen compound DMBA with a dosage of 0.56 mg kg-1 BW and estradiol with a dose of 0.0504 mg kg-1 BW which was given alternately for 8 weeks to the Mus musculus test animals. The study was conducted in 3 groups: K- (the normal group of mice), K + (a carcinogen-induced group of mice), and P (a group of carcinogen-induced mice and E. scaber extract). The treatment was done in 1 week, 2 weeks, and 3 weeks. Immune cells were isolated from splenocytes and performed immunostaining for flow cytometry analysis. The computed relative amount is TNF-α produced by macrophages CD11b and TGF-β produced by Treg CD4CD25. The relative number of cells was analyzed by two-way ANOVA and advanced Tukey test with 95% confidence level (α = 0.05). The results showed no significant differences in the number of cytokines TNF-α and TGF-β in both the carcinogen-induced mice group and the mice group was given the extract of Elephantopus scaber for 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks.Keywords: Carcinogen, Elephantopus scaber, TNF-α, TGF-β