Phaleria macrocarpa Leaves Extract Reduce Tumors Growth and Improve Histological Changes of Liver and Kidney on 4T1 Breast Cancer Mice Model
Keywords:cellular, molecular, physiology
AbstractBreast cancer is a type of cancer that highly occurs globally and causes death cases. Of the many ways of treating breast cancer, chemotherapy is the most recommended, even though it causes various disturbing side effects. Therefore, alternative medicine using bioactive compounds of medicinal plants has begun to be widely used, for example, Phaleria macrocarpa, a plant native to Indonesia with anticancer and antioxidant activity. The liver and kidneys are important organs that function to maintain body homeostasis. The use of crude extracts of medicinal plants often causes damage to those organs at inappropriate doses. This research aimed to get an effective dose for reducing breast cancer growth and is safe for the liver and kidneys. A total of 36 mice were divided into six groups, including healthy control, cancer control, cisplatin, and three doses of P. macrocarpa extract (58.9, 117.8, and 235.6 mg.kg-1). The experimental animals were injected using a 4T1 cell line and treated orally using P. macrocarpa leaf ethanol extract for two and three weeks. The tumor volume of mice was measured periodically. At the end of treatment, mice were sacrificed, and their liver and kidney organs were isolated. Both organs were then prepared for H&E staining and observed using a microscope. The results showed that a dose of 58.9 mg.kg-1 and 117.8 mg.kg-1 of P. macrocarpa extract could reduce tumor volume by more than 90%, and the 117.8 mg.kg-1 dose is the safest dose to use because it does not affect the kidney and cause chronic damage to liver tissue. Keywords: extract, kidney, liver, tissue damage, tumor.
.Sharma, N. Ganesh., Rahul Dave, Jyotsana Sanadya, Piush Sharma, K.K. Sharma. 2010. Various types and management of breast cancer: an overview. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 1. 1: 109-126.
.Liao, Guo-Shiou., Apaya , Maria Karmella., Shyur, Lie-Fen. 2013. Herbal medicine and acupuncture for breast cancer palliative care and adjuvant therapy. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 13: 1-17.
.Elyse, J. Walkins. 2019. Overview of Breast Cancer. Journal of The American Academy of Physician Assistants. 32. 10: 13-17.
.Djati, M. S., Dwijayanti, D. R., & Rifaâ€™i, M. 2015. Synergetic modulation of T lymphocyte and TER 119+ Cell using combination of Elephantopus scaber and Polyscias obtusa extract in pregnant mice after Salmonela typhi infection. Int. J. Pharmn. Bi. Sci. 6. 1228-1234.
.Altaf, Rabia., Mohammad Z.B.A., Aidiahmad, D., Amirin, S., Muhammad, I.U. 2013. Phytochemistry and Medicinal Properties of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. Extracts. Pharmacognosy Review. 7. 13: 73-80.
.Christina, Y.I., Nafisah, W., Athoâ€™illah M.F., Rifaâ€™I M., Widodo, Djati, M.S. 2021. Anti-breast Cancer Potential Activity of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl Leaf Extract Through in silico Studies. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy Research. 9. 6: 824-845.
.Adeyemi, O.S., and Akanji M.A. 2010. Biochemical changes in the kidney and liver of rats following administration of ethanolic extract of psidium guajava leaves. Human and Experimental Toxicology. 30. 9: 1266-1274.
.Rajamurugan, R., Suyavaran, A., Selvaganabathy N., Ramamurthy C.H., Reddy G.P., Sujatha V., Thirunavukkarasu C. 2012. Brassica nigra plays a remedy role in hepatic and renal damage. Pharmaceutical Biology. 50. 12: 1488-1497.
.Karakus, Ali., Yeter Deger, Serkan Yildirim. 2017. Protective effect of Silybum marianum and Taraxacum oficinale extract against oxidative kidney injuries induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Ren Fail. 39. 1: 1-6.
.Radi, A. Zaher. 2019. Kidney pathophysiology, toxicology, and drug-induced injury in drug development. International Journal of Toxicology. 38. 3: 215-227.
.Hesham, A. Ahmed and Mohamd M. Ghobara. 2013. Histological study of the effect of cisplatin on the liver of adult male albino rat. IJASR. 1. 1: 22-33.
.Dasari, Shaloam and Tchounwou, P.B. 2015. Cisplatin in cancer therapy: molecular mechanisms of action. Eur J Pharmacol. 14. 740: 364-378.
.Aborehan, M. Nora and Nada Osama. 2019. Effect of Gallic acid in potentiating chemotherapeutic effect of Paclitaxel in HeLa cervical cancer cells. Cancer Cell International. 19. 154: 1-13.
.Tandrasasmita, M. Olivia., Jason S. Lee., Sung H. Baek., Raymon R. Tjandrawinata. 2010. Induction of cellular apoptosis in human breast cancer by dlbs1425, a phaleria macrocarpa compound extract, via down-regulation of pi3-kinase/akt pathway. Cancer Biol Ther. 10. 8: 814-823.
.Arsad S. Siti., Norhaizan M. Esa., Hazilawati H. 2014. Histopathological changes in liver and kidney tsissues from male sprague dawley rats treated with Rhapidhophora decursiva (rocb.) schott extract. J Cytol Histol. 4: 1-6.
.Palipoch, Sarawoot and Chucard Punsawad. 2013. Biochemical and histological study of rat liver and kidney injury induced by cisplatin. J Toxicol Ptahol. 26: 293-299.
.Popa, T. Grigore. 2009. Atlas of Pathology. University of Medicine and Pharmacy. IASI. Romania.
.Abdelhalim, A.K.M and Bashir M.J. 2011. Gold nanoparticles induced cloudy swelling to hydropic degeneration, cytoplasmic hyaline vacuolation, polymorphism, binucleation, karyopyknosis, karyolysis, karyorrhexis and necrosis in the liver. Lipids in Health and Disease. 10. 166: 1-6.
.Sundari, Nanik., Vivian Soetikno, Melva Louisa, Bantari W. Wardhani, Raymond R. Tjandrawinata. 2018. Protective effect of Phaleria macrocarpa water extract (proliverenol) against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats: role of TNF-Î± and TGF-Î²1. Journal of Toxicology. 8: 1-7.
.Christina, Y.I., Diana, M.R., Fuzianingsih, E.N., Nurhayati, Ridwan, F.N., Widodo, Muhaimin Rifaâ€™I., Djati, M.S. 2021. Hormone-balancing and protective effect of combined extract of Sauropus androgynus and Elephantopus scaber against Escherichia coli-induced renal and hepatic necrosis in pregnant mice. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine. 12. 2: 245-253.
.Suhartono, Eko., Triawanti, Amin S.L., M. Sasmito Djati. 2014. Oxidative stress and kidney glycation in rats exposed cadmium. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications. 5. 6: 497-501.
.Nunsio, P.N., Kevin W., Tejo J., Nining S.W., Sulanto S.D., Jonatha W.S. 2018. Hepatoprotective effect of godâ€™s crown fruit (Phaleria macrocarpa) 70% ethanol extract against acetaminophen-induced liver injury in Swiss-webster mice. Berkala Ilmiah Kedokteran Duta Wacana. 4. 1: 18-25.
.Abouseif, S. H. 2016. Physiological changes due to hepatotoxicity and the protective role of some medicinal plants. Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 3. 4: 1-13.
.Dwijayanti, R. Dinia., Djati, M.S., Rifaâ€™I M. 2015. Decreasing the expression level of macrophage cell, pro-inflammatory cytokines and nf-Îºb by using vipalbuminÂ® in vitro. Asian Journal of Cell Biology. 10. 2: 43-56.
.Ravindra, Pratibha., Dayanand A.B., Sameer Kulkarni, Padmanabh V.R., Chitra Y. D. 2010. Cisplatin induce histological changes in renal tissue of rat. JCAB. 4. 7: 108-111.
.Perazella, A. Mark. 2012. Onco-nephrology: renal toxicities of chemoterapeutic agents. CJASN. 7. 10: 1713-1721.
.Frazier, S. Kendall, John C. Seely, Gordon C. Hard, Graham Betton, Roger Burnett, Shunji Nakatsuji, Akiyoshi Nishikawa, Beate D. Meyer, Axel Bube. 2012. proliferative and nonproliverative lesions of the rat and mouse urinary system. Toxicology Pathology. 40: 14-86.
.Aboryag, B.N., Doaa M.M., Lukas Dehe, Mohammed Shaqura, Sacha Treskatsch, Mehdi Shakibaei, Michael Schafer. 2017. Histopathological changes in the kidney following congestive heart failure by volume overload in rats. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 17: 1-10.
.Andayani, N.K.P.S., Iriani Setyawati., Martin Joni. 2018. Kidney histopathology of Gallus gallus domesticus infected by E.coli in Denpasar, Bali. Advances in Tropical Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences. 2. 1: 14.
Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal of Experimental Life Science
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).