The Journal of Experimental Life Science <p>Welcome to The Journal of Experimental Life Science (JELS), a scientific journal published by the Postgraduate School of Brawijaya University. Colleagues can access JELS articles on published scientific papers in <em>review, short reports,</em> and <em>articles</em> in <em>Life Sciences</em> especially biology, biotechnology, nanobiology, molecular biology, botany, microbiology, genetics, neuroscience, pharmacology, toxicology, and <em>Applied Life Science</em> including fermentation technology, food science, immunotherapy, proteomics and other fields related to life matter.</p> Postgraduate School, University of Brawijaya en-US The Journal of Experimental Life Science 2087-2852 Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br /><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol> Evaluating Arrowroot Starch Modification and Application in Wet Noodles <p>Increasing the Resistant Starch (RS) level in food products containing naturally high starch content is important as RS has been acknowledged as a functional food ingredient. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of steam-cooling treatment on the characteristic of arrowroot starch and to investigate the feasibility of arrowroot-based RS application on wet noodles. The study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with one factor which was the steam-cooling cycle. Later, the substitution of 5%, 10%, and 20% of modified arrowroot starches on wet noodles was used, and then the consumer test was carried out. The results showed that the RS content of arrowroot starch remained after steam-cooling treatment. The treatment, however, reduced the water content and the brightness of the starch. Subsequently, arrowroot starch substitution without or with modification also reduced the lightness and tensile strength of wet noodles. Also, wet noodles with modified arrowroot starch substitution were significantly different in color, taste, and aroma parameters but were still acceptable to the panelists at a maximum substitution of 20%. The formulated wet noodles with modified arrowroot starch contained RS of 34.02% (d/b), and therefore they can be categorized as foodstuffs with high RS levels.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>arrowroot starch, resistant starch, steam-cooling, wet noodles.</p> Aprilia Bertha Puspitasari Godras Jati Manuhara Dwi Larasatie Nur Fibri Dimas Rahadian Aji Muhammad Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal of Experimental Life Science 2022-02-28 2022-02-28 12 1 1 8 10.21776/ub.jels.2022.012.01.01 Assessing the Genotoxicity Effect of a Commercial Chlorpyrifos Formulation in Fejervarya limnocharis Tadpoles (Anura: Dicroglossidae) Under Acute and Chronic Exposure <p>The potential for genotoxicity of pesticides is currently one of the world's concerns. Chlorpyrifos is the organophosphate active ingredient with the largest sales, but the potential for genotoxicity in amphibians is still not widely known. The purpose of this study was to assess the genotoxicity effect of a commercial chlorpyrifos formulation Dursban 200EC in <em>F. limnocharis</em> tadpole erythrocyte (Anura: Dicroglossidae) under acute and chronic exposure using by micronucleus assay. Acute and chronic toxicity tests consisted of negative control, positive control, and 0.4, 0.8, and 1 µg.L<sup>-</sup><sup>1</sup> of chlorpyrifos with three replications. A toxicity test was carried out on ten tadpoles (Gosner 25) from artificial reproductions in each treatment. The results showed that the formulation of Dursban 200EC in low concentrations (0.4 µg l<sup>-</sup><sup>1</sup>) had the potential to induce DNA damage in erythrocytes of <em>F. limnocharis</em> tadpoles, and there was a positive correlation between chlorpyrifos concentrations and an increase in the frequency of MN. Erythrocytes exposed to chlorpyrifos in both acute and chronic treatment had significantly different MN frequencies between negative and positive controls, 0.4, 0.8, and 1 µg.L<sup>-</sup><sup>1</sup> (p&lt;0.01). Meanwhile, positive controls were not significantly different from 1 µg.L<sup>-</sup><sup>1</sup> ( p&gt;0.05). However, the increase in the frequency of MN in chronic treatment was almost twice as high.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Chlorpyrifos, <em>F. limnocharis</em>, Genotoxicity, Micronucleus Assay, Tadpoles</p> Shima Ramadani Agung Pramana Warih Marhendra Nia Kurniawan Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal of Experimental Life Science 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 12 1 9 16 10.21776/ub.jels.2022.012.01.02 Phytochemical Analysis of Purple Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) Roots Extract From Lawang and Kawi Mountain Cultivar, East Java, Indonesia <p>Indonesia has wide cultivation of purple sweet potatoes (PSP) commodities, particularly in East Java province. However, the difference of phytochemical profiles in PSP among geographical regions has not been fully explored. This study aimed to analyze the phytochemicals, anthocyanin, and antioxidant activity profiles from two different cultivars of PSP from Lawang and Kawi Mountain region, East Java, Indonesia. The acidified methanol extract was identified for a phytochemical compound using standard methods. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using a ferric reducing assay. Anthocyanins were screened using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and total calculation. Both extracts have positive values in their alkaloid, phenolic, flavonoid, glycoside, and tannin content. Antioxidant activity was high with IC<sub>50</sub> value 2.5 and 2.3 µg. mL<sup>-1</sup> for Lawang and Kawi Mountain, respectively. Each cultivar has a similar peak at 521 nm at pH 1 and 530 nm at pH 4.5. Total anthocyanin calculation was showed that Lawang has higher anthocyanin content than Kawi Mountain cultivar. We concluded that PSP from Lawang has better anthocyanin content than the Kawi Mountain cultivar. We proposed that PSP from the Lawang cultivar has the potential to be explored in further research and health-related product development.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>anthocyanin, antioxidant, geographical, purple sweet potatoes.</p> Fajar Mustika Alam Nia Kurnianingsih Fatchiyah Fatchiyah Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal of Experimental Life Science 2022-03-02 2022-03-02 12 1 17 22 10.21776/ub.jels.2022.012.01.03 Analysis of Microplastics in Water and Biofilm Matrices in Metro River, East Java, Indonesia <p>The Metro River flows from upstream to downstream across East Java to support several human activities such as household, toilets, or agriculture. The utilization of water rivers must be balanced with water quality monitoring so that the quality of the water can be monitored. This study aims to analyze the abundance of microplastic in the Metro River. Moreover, the water parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, flow velocity) were also measured. Sampling was carried out at three different stations, namely station 1 representing the agricultural activity area, station 2 representing the household activity area, and station 3 representing industrial activity. This study shows the abundance of microplastics in biofilm matrices and surrounding river water. The types of the microplastics are fibers, fragments, and films. The total abundances of microplastics in river water ranged from 0.8 - 1.61 particle.mL<sup>-1</sup>, while the biofilm matrices ranged from 7.4 to 9.5 particle.gram<sup>-1</sup>. The results of water quality parameters at all stations are still relatively good compared to quality standards. To the best of our knowledge, this study was the first study that reports the microplastics in the water of and inside biofilm formed on Metro River.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>aquatic ecology, biofilm, Metro River, microplastics, water pollution.</p> Safitri Permata Sari Hartati Kartikaningsih Adi Tiya Yanuar Andi Kurniawan Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal of Experimental Life Science 2022-03-07 2022-03-07 12 1 23 29 10.21776/ub.jels.2022.012.01.04 Synergism of Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimm) and Chromolaena odorata L. Leaf Extract to Control Aphis gossypii (Glover) in Chili Plants <p>The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of the appropriate and effective application of the <em>L.</em> <em>lecanii</em> fungus and <em>C. odorata</em> L. leaf extract in increasing the mortality of <em>A</em><em>. </em><em>gossypii</em>. The study was divided into two stages. The first stage was <em>in vitro</em> test of <em>L.</em> <em>lecanii</em> synergism plus <em>C. odorata</em> L. leaf extract in PDA media with four treatments, namely LK<sub>0</sub>= <em>L. lecanii </em>10<sup>7 </sup>conidia.mL<sup>-1 </sup>plus 0% <em>C. odorata</em> L. leaf extract, LK<sub>1</sub>= <em>L. lecanii </em>10<sup>7 </sup>conidia.mL<sup>-1 </sup>plus 10% <em>C. odorata</em> L. leaf extract, LK<sub>2</sub>= <em>L. lecanii </em>10<sup>7 </sup>conidia.mL<sup>-1 </sup>plus 25% <em>C. odorata</em> L. leaf extract; LK<sub>3</sub>= <em>L. lecanii </em>10<sup>7 </sup>conidia.mL<sup>-1 </sup>plus 40% <em>C. odorata</em> L. leaf extract. The second stage was the toxicity test of the application of <em>L.</em> <em>lecanii</em> suspension and <em>C. odorata</em> L. leaf extract on mortality of <em>A.</em> <em>gossypii</em>. The toxicity test was based on the results of the synergism test, where the addition of <em>C. odorata</em> L. leaf extract to <em>L. lecanii </em>growing media showed incompatible results. Therefore, the toxicity test was carried out separately with five treatments, namely H<sub>0</sub>= Control (aqua dest); H<sub>1</sub>= Conidia suspension <em>L. lecanii</em> 10<sup>7</sup> conidia mL<sup>-1</sup>; H<sub>2</sub>= 10% <em>C. odorata</em> leaf extract; H<sub>3</sub>= 25% leaf extract of<em> C. odorata</em>; H<sub>4</sub>= 40% <em>C. odorata</em> leaf extract. The results showed that the compatibility test of <em>L.</em> <em>lecanii</em> with leaf extract of <em>C. odorata</em> L. was incompatible and classified as toxic. The addition of <em>C. odorata</em> L. leaf extract in concentrations of 10%, 25%, and 40% could significantly inhibit colony growth, sporulation, and conidia viability of <em>L.</em> <em>lecanii</em>, with a higher level of inhibition as the concentration of <em>C. odorata</em> L. leaf extract, was added. The toxicity test of a separate application of<em> C. odorata</em> L. leaf extract and <em>L.</em> <em>lecanii</em> suspension had a significant effect on mortality of 3<sup>rd</sup> instar nymph <em>A.</em> <em>gossypii</em>, with the highest mean mortality found in a single application of 40% <em>C. odorata</em> L. leaf extract with an average mortality of 100% at 96 HAA(Hours After Application) observations.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>A. gossypii,</em><em> C. odorata</em> L. leaf extract, <em>L. lecanii</em>, synergism.</p> Wiwik Nurhayati Nanang Tri Haryadi Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal of Experimental Life Science 2022-03-08 2022-03-08 12 1 30 38 10.21776/ub.jels.2022.012.01.05