The Journal of Experimental Life Science <p>Welcome to The Journal of Experimental Life Science (JELS), a scientific journal published by the Postgraduate School of Brawijaya University. Colleagues can access JELS articles on published scientific papers in <em>review, short reports,</em> and <em>articles</em> in <em>Life Sciences</em> especially biology, biotechnology, nanobiology, molecular biology, botany, microbiology, genetics, neuroscience, pharmacology, toxicology, and <em>Applied Life Science</em> including fermentation technology, food science, immunotherapy, proteomics and other fields related to life matter.</p> <p>JELS is published 3 (three) times a year (Number 1: February; Number 2: June; Number 3: October). Submissions are open all year-round. Before submitting, please make sure that the manuscript is in the focus and scope of JELS, written in ENGLISH, and follows our author guidelines and manuscript template. All submitted articles shall be original, have never been published elsewhere, and not under consideration for other publications.</p> en-US Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br /><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol> (Wenny Bekti Sunarharum) (Jehan Ramdani Haryati) Tue, 28 Feb 2023 07:01:14 +0000 OJS 60 The Relationship of Chemical Compounds and Crystal Development in Porang Tuber (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) <p>Chemical compounds are presumed to interact with each other and potentially affect the crystal development of porang tubers. This study focused on glucomannan and calcium oxalate (CaOx) as chemical compounds found in porang. Crystal development was analyzed by microscopic observation. The tuber tissue was used for microscopic slides and was harvested two weeks before the plants lost their leaves, when the plants lost their leaves, and two weeks after the plants lost their leaves. The CaOx and glucomannan content was measured using a modified extraction method. The increasing of CaOx content tends to increase the number of CaOx crystals. The analysis showed that the crystal density could affect the increasing of tuber weight possibility. There was a development process in raphide crystals that showed by different sizes at three harvest times, which the others were not. The results also indicated that glucomannan might influence the crystal density and the CaOx content. It can be concluded that glucomannan can potentially induce CaOx synthesis and crystal count increase.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Caox, Crystal, Development, Glucomannan, Interact, Porang.</p> Nurul Chairiyah, Nunung Harijati, Retno Mastuti Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial Ability of Rhizophora mucronata Leaf Extract Against Bacterial Infections of Edwardsiella tarda <p><em>Edwardseilla tarda</em> is a group of gram-negative bacteria with facultative anaerobic properties that can infect both cultivated and wild fish. <em>Edwardseilla tarda</em> infection causes considerable economic losses in the world. <em>Rhizopora mucronata</em> is a plant that is known to have the ability to produce secondary metabolites such as alkaloids and flavonoids. This study aims to determine the ability of <em>R. mucronata</em> to inhibit the growth of <em>E. tarda</em> as indicated by the presence of an inhibition zone and the absorbance value in the tube dilution test. The method used in this study is the disc diffusion test and the tube dilution test. The results of the phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonoid and alkaloid compounds in the crude extract of <em>R. mucronata</em> leaves. A concentration of 15.6 mg.L<sup>-1</sup> showed a minimal inhibitory response in inhibiting the growth of <em>E. tarda</em> bacteria. In comparison, the concentration of 56 mg.L<sup>-1</sup> showed the highest inhibitory response in inhibiting the growth of <em>E. tarda</em> bacteria. It indicates that the compounds contained in <em>R. mucronata</em> can be used as alternative ingredients in medicine to treat <em>E. tarda</em> bacterial infections.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Alkaloid, Antibacterial, <em>E. tarda, </em>Flavonoid, <em>R. mucronata. </em></p> Ramanda Ahmad Rizal Rifa'i, Sri Andayani, Mohamad Fadjar Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Hypercaloric Cafeteria Diet-Induces Obesity, Dyslipidemia, Insulin Resistance, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats <p>Obesity is a public health problem associated with oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance. The present study analyzed the cafeteria diet's effects on obesity, oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance in Wistar rats. Thirty-five male rats were divided into four groups: 1, control (n=10); 2, cafeteria diet (n=9) during 26 weeks (age relative to human adolescence); 3, control 38 weeks (n=9); 4, cafeteria diet during 38 weeks (n=7) (age relative to human adults). The percentage of total adipose tissue (TAT), body mass index, Lee's index, and insulin sensitivity (QUICKI-HOMA) were calculated, as well as metabolic parameters such as lipid profile, glucose levels, glycosylated hemoglobin, antioxidant and oxidative status, TNF-α, and IL-6. Both rat groups with cafeteria diet increased their weight 45.13±15.73 g and TAT 7.75 ± 0.64 g significantly at 26-week, and 46.7±9.05 g weight and TAT 9.97 ± 0.46 at 38 weeks compared to the control group (p&lt;0.05 and p&lt;0.01, respectively). Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, glucose, Insulin, TBARS, GSH, and catalase activity levels increased in both 26 and 38-week groups vs. control (p&lt;0.01), and TNF-α only at 26 weeks (p&lt;0.01). In conclusion, the cafeteria diet induces obesity in rats, accompanied by hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, and TAT. Induction of obesity with a cafeteria diet could be used to study the mechanisms involved in the genesis of overweight, obesity, and comorbidities to establish intervention strategies to prevent these pathologies during adolescence and adulthood.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, Total Adipose Tissue, QUICKI-HOMA.</p> Palma-Jacinto José Antonio, Santiago-Roque Isela, Arroyo-Helguera Omar Elind Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Probiotic Doses in Biofloc Growth on Hematological and Histological Status of Catfish <p>Biofloc technology is one of the promising methods to overcome water quality problems in fish farming. This technology uses an environmentally friendly approach and does not harm cultivated organisms. The success of biofloc technology depends on the accuracy of determining probiotics and doses in the treatment. This study used petrofish commercial probiotics containing <em>Lactobacillus heterochiochii</em>, <em>Bacillus </em>sp., <em>Nitrosomonas </em>sp.<em>,</em> and <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>, with a bacterial density of 1.2 x 106 CFU.mL<sup>-1</sup>. This study aimed to determine the suitable doses of probiotics for growing biofloc. Biofloc has a high content of protein. In the biofloc process, fish will consume the floc. It led to hematology status and intestine histology alteration that caused effects on fish growth. The method used in this study was an experimental method with a completely randomized design with four treatments. Each treatment will be repeated three times. The variable test was a difference of doses of probiotic P0 (0 L.L<sup>-1</sup> water), P1 (1 L.L<sup>-1</sup> water), P2 (1.5 L.L<sup>-1</sup> water), and P3 (2 L.L<sup>-1</sup> water). The observations on the value of hematological status showed erythrocytes in the P2 treatment was 2.9 x 1012.L<sup>-1</sup> and P3 was 2.5 x 1012.L<sup>-1</sup>. It was categorized as a normal condition, while P0 and P1 (2.0 x 1012.L<sup>-1</sup>) were below normal values. The hemoglobin values of P2 (9.6 g.dL<sup>-1</sup>) and P3 (9.0 g.dL<sup>-1</sup>) were in accordance with normal values, while P0 (4.9 g.dL<sup>-1</sup>) and P1 (6.1 g.dL<sup>-1</sup>) were below normal. The hematocrit value in P2 was under the normal limit of 39%, while the treatments P0, P1, and P3 were below the normal limit. The leucocyte values in all treatments (P0, P1, P2, and P3) were above the normal (high) value, influenced by high stocking density. The best intestinal villi length was found in P2, which is 2431.42 µm; the villi width is 631.90 µm. Based on the observations on all variables, it can be stated that the probiotic doses have significant biofloc growth and hematological and histological intestine status. Furthermore, the (P2) treatment with 1.5 L.L<sup>-1</sup> water effectively affected the growth of catfish (<em>Clarias</em> sp).</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Biofloc, Catfish, Hematology, Histology, Probiotic Petrifish.</p> Guilherme Teotonio Gomes, Sri Andayani, Uun Yanuhar Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation of Chitinolytic Bacteria as Biocontrol Agent for Pathogenic Fungi on Cocoa Fruit in Sumbermanjing District, Malang <p>The productivity of cocoa plants in Sumbermanjing District is lower than in other parts of Malang Regency. Diseases like pathogenic fungi are to blame for the low output of cocoa plants. This research aimed to find chitinolytic bacteria that were superior at degrading chitin and limiting the growth of pathogenic fungi. These bacteria were isolated from cocoa garden soil and shrimp shell dumps. The bacteria from soil samples taken from the shrimp shell dump in Ujungpangkah District and the cocoa gardens in Sumbermanjing District were cultivated on an agar medium supplemented with colloidal chitin. The pathogenic fungi were discovered from decaying cocoa pods from Sumbermanjing District cocoa plantations. An antagonist test was used to gauge the inhibitory power, and a semi-quantitative test was used to measure the chitinolytic index. The similarity of 16S rDNA sequences allowed for the identification of superior bacterial isolates. The T2S1 isolates of chitinolytic bacteria had the highest levels of pathogenic fungi inhibition (25.14%, 20.85%, and 25.24%). With a 16S rDNA sequence similarity of 99.77%, <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> C10 was identified as the bacterium T2S1.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Bacillus subtilis</em>, Pathogenetic fungi, Cocoa, Chitinase, 16s-rDNA.</p> Cahyaning Sulistyantini, Irfan Mustafa, Yoga Dwi Jatmiko Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Halophilic Bacteria Producing Protease from Salted Fish in Ponrang, Luwu Regency, South Sulawesi <p>The need for protease enzymes for medical and industrial purposes. The need for proteases in the world reaches 65% of the total sales of enzymes, and in Indonesia can reach 2.500 tons every year, and 99% percent of the enzyme needs are still imported from abroad. Salted fish is one of the foods that contain a lot of protein, which is about 42% in 100 g of salted fish. It allows the presence of proteolytic bacteria that have halophilic properties in salted fish. This study aims to explore the presence of proteolytic bacteria with halophilic properties in salted fish. Proteolytic isolates were isolated using SMA media from salted fish from Ponrang District, Luwu Regency, South Sulawesi. A qualitative test was carried out by measuring the clear zone formed in Skim Milk Agar (SMA). From the isolation process, 51 isolates were obtained. However, after the screening, only 25 pure isolates were found that formed a clear zone, followed by a quantitative test to see which isolates had stable activity at incubation times of 24, 48, and 72 hours using Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) media. The results obtained four superior isolates, P1A1K, P2B2PS, P3C6PS, and P3C6P, then continued to quantify halophilic bacteria properties by administering NaCl with 15% and 20% concentration into TSB media for 24 and 48 hours incubation. Two isolates with the highest protease activity were P3C6P isolates with the activity of 43.23 ± 7.11 U.mL<sup>-1</sup> at 15% salt concentration and 42.83 ± 3.04 U.mL<sup>-1</sup> at 20% salt concentration and P2B2PS isolates of 38.05 ± 4.05 U.mL<sup>-1</sup> at 15% salt concentration and 38.15 ± 1.47 U.mL<sup>-1 </sup>at 20% salt concentration. The two isolates were then tested for pathogenicity on blood agar media. It was found that only P3C6P isolates did not have pathogenic properties, so P3C6P isolates were continued with catalase, oxidase, and gram staining tests, which showed negative catalase and oxidase results and were gram-positive, followed by identification based on sequences. 16S rDNA and phylogenetic tree construction where isolate P3C6P was identified as <em>Bacillus cereus </em>with a 100% similarity level to the WHX1 strain.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Enzyme, Protease, Proteolytic, Salted Fish, 16s-rDNA.</p> Andi Muhammad Faiz Ramadhan, Tri Ardyati, Yoga Dwi Jatmiko Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Potential of Kesambi Active Compound (Schleichera oleosa) as Antagonist G-Protein Estrogen Receptor 1 (GPER1) by In Silico <p>Tamoxifen is a treatment for breast cancer patients which can cause side effects of endometrial cancer because it acts as a GPER1 agonist. Active compounds from <em>Schleichera oleosa</em> are known to have anticancer potential, such as schleicheol and schleicherastatin, especially their ability to prevent cell proliferation. This research conducted an in silico study to determine the potential of the active compound from <em>S. Oleosa</em> as a GPER1 inhibitor. In silico studies include molecular docking and molecular dynamics. The data obtained are binding affinity values, potential energy, RMSD, RMSF, and conformational changes. Active compound candidates with the lowest binding affinity were selected, namely Schleicheol 1 (SCL1), Lupeol (LU), Lupeol acetate (LA), Betulinic acid (BA), and Schleicherastatin 3 (SCR3) with an order of score -8.6, - 8.5, -8.4, -8.4 and -8.4 kcal.mol<sup>-1</sup>. When complexed with GPER1-Estradiol and GPER1-Tamoxifen, the lowest binding affinity was LU (-8.6 and -8.7 kcal.mol<sup>-1</sup>). LU binds to the same amino acid as Estradiol and Tamoxifen, namely Leu:271. Based on molecular dynamics, RMSD All (receptor complex) ranged from 3,723 to 5,098 Å, above the normal limit of 3 Å. However, RMSD All shows stability starting from 1.5 ns so that the resulting data can be used. The RMSF value showed higher fluctuations than Tamoxifen at the same binding site as Tamoxifen, including SCL1-T, LU-T, LA-T, and BA-T, which can interfere with the function of the GPER1 receptor. LU, LA, BA, SCL1-T LU-T, and LA-T with GPER1 produce the same structural changes as G15 as GPER1 antagonists. The active compound, especially lupeol, which has the lowest binding affinity, is predicted to have the potential to inhibit GPER1 in silico so that it can be proposed for further testing.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Endometrial Cancer, GPER1, <em>Schleichera oleosa</em>, Tamoxifen.</p> Radita Intan Aisyah Pratiwi, Sri Widyarti, Sutiman Bambang Sumitro Copyright (c) 2023 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Chemical Characterization of Silver Nanoparticle Compounds using Red Algae (Fucus vesiculosus) in Freeze Dry Methods <p>The nanoparticle green synthesis method is an alternative method for synthesizing nanoparticles or nanomaterials. The nanoparticle green synthesis method is a synthesis method that forms metal nanoparticles using natural materials such as plants as bioreductor. Red algae contain active ingredients that are the potential as antioxidants and anti-aging. <em>Fucus vesiculosus</em> is one of the red algae species with bioactive as an anti-aging and antioxidant compound<span data-preserver-spaces="true">. This study aims to synthesize, characterize and determine the antioxidant activity of <em>F.</em> </span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Vesiculosus</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> nanoparticles compounds. </span>Characterization for nanoparticle compounds is Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Particle Size Analyzer (PSA). The antioxidant activity test used the DPPH method. The results of the SEM characterization of nanoparticles showed the results of the formation of spherical particle surfaces known as a spherical formation. SEM-EDX shows several constituent elements of silver nanoparticles <em>F. vesiculosus</em>, namely C, O, Na, Mg, Cl, and K. Characterization silver nanoparticles using PSA measuring the particle size are 74.06 nm at 99.5% distribution. Characterization of silver nanoparticles using XRD showed crystalline character. The FTIR pattern shows the functional groups of alkenes, aromatic rings, ethers, amines/amides, alkenes, and alkanes. The antioxidant test results showed that the inhibition concentration for ascorbic acid was 1.13 ppm, silver nanoparticles <em>F.</em> <em>vesiculosus </em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">177.6 ppm, <em>F.</em></span> <em>vesiculosus</em><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> crude extract 1335 ppm</span>, and respectively, ascorbic acid &gt; silver NP &gt; crude extract <em>F.<span data-preserver-spaces="true"> vesiculosus</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">. The test results show that the antioxidant activity of the nanoparticle compounds increased from the very weak into the strong category. </span></p> <p><span data-preserver-spaces="true"><strong>Keywords: </strong>antioxidant activity, <em>Fucus vesiculosus, </em>Nanoparticle. </span></p> Evika Sandi Savitri, Shinta, Eko Budi Minarno, Rahmi Annisa Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 06 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between Metallothionein and Mercury (Hg) in the Gill Tissue of the Barbonymus altus in the Brantas River Jombang, East Java <p>Pollution of river waters is most often the result of human activities in managing agricultural land, industry, and transportation. The entry of pollutants such as heavy metal mercury (Hg) into the waters can interfere with the survival of fish waters. Red Bader Fish (<em>Barbonymus altus</em>) can be used as a biomarker in analyzing aquatic environmental conditions in the Brantas River, Jombang, East Java. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between metallothionein and heavy metal mercury in the gill tissue of <em>Barbonymus altus</em>. Sampling was conducted at three stations with three replications from February to March 2022. Data analysis used regression and correlation methods to determine the relationship between metallothionein and metal mercury in gill tissue. The density and intensity of metallothionein in the gill tissue of <em>Barbonymus altus </em>were analyzed using the immunohistochemical method. The mercury (Hg) content in the gill tissue of <em>Barbonymus altus </em>was analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The results showed that the metallothionein density at each station included station 1 of 252.52 × 10<sup>-6</sup> – 497.79 × 10<sup>-6</sup> MT.µm<sup>-2</sup>, station 2 of 277.78 × 10<sup>-6</sup> – 378.78 × 10<sup>-6</sup> MT.µm<sup>-2</sup>, and station 3 of 303.03 × 10<sup>-6</sup> – 404.04 × 10<sup>-6</sup> MT.µm<sup>-2</sup>. The relationship between the metallothionein density value and mercury in the gill tissue has a moderate correlation. In contrast, the metallothionein intensity value with mercury in the gill tissue strongly correlated with a significance value of sig &lt; 0.05. The Hg levels in the gill tissue, density, and intensity have significant values at the all three locations based on the real difference test (sig. 0.00). </p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Barbonymus altus</em>, density, intensity, mercury, river.</p> Aang Setyawan Anjasmara, Asus Maizar Suryanto Hertika, Uun Yanuhar Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 24 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000