The Journal of Experimental Life Science <p>Welcome to The Journal of Experimental Life Science (JELS) (print ISSN <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2087-2852</a>; e - ISSN <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2338-1655</a>), a scientific journal published by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Postgraduate School, Universitas Brawijaya</a>. Colleagues can access JELS articles on published scientific papers in <em>review, short reports,</em> and <em>articles</em> in <em>Life Sciences</em> especially biology, biotechnology, nanobiology, molecular biology, botany, microbiology, genetics, neuroscience, pharmacology, toxicology, and <em>Applied Life Science</em> including fermentation technology, food science, immunotherapy, proteomics and other fields related to life matter.</p> <p>JELS is published 3 (three) times a year (Number 1: February; Number 2: June; Number 3: October). Submissions are open all year-round. Before submitting, please make sure that the manuscript is in the focus and scope of JELS, written in ENGLISH, and follows our author guidelines and manuscript template. All submitted articles shall be original, have never been published elsewhere, and not under consideration for other publications.</p> en-US Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br /><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol> (Wenny Bekti Sunarharum) (Jehan Ramdani Haryati) Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 The Impact of Self-Induced Anaerobic Fermentation (SIAF) on Coffee Antioxidants: A Review <p>Coffee is one of the most traded commodities in the world and plays a crucial role in Indonesia's economy. The price of coffee is intricately tied to its quality and perceived health benefits. Recently, there has been a growing interest in studying the effect of post-harvest processing, particularly fermentation, on coffee antioxidants. Among the various fermentation techniques, self-induced anaerobic fermentation (SIAF) has emerged as an innovative approach to enhance coffee antioxidants. Despite its potential, the effects of SIAF on coffee antioxidants appear to be inconsistent, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This review aims to evaluate the potential impacts of SIAF on coffee's antioxidant contents and activities. Relevant articles from 2013 to 2023 that discuss the effects of SIAF on coffee antioxidants were reviewed. The results indicate that SIAF may enhance coffee's antioxidant contents and activities, but the effects appear to depend on the microorganisms involved in the fermentation process. The effects may be linked to the microbial activities and enzymatic processes that change the biochemical compositions of the coffee during fermentation. Knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the effects is important for optimal integration of SIAF into the coffee industry. This study contributes valuable insights into the promising role of SIAF in enhancing coffee antioxidants and emphasizes the importance of continued research in this field.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Antioxidant, Anaerobic Fermentation, Coffee, Microbes, Polyphenol.</p> Annisa Aurora Kartika, Wenny Bekti Sunarharum, Tunjung Mahatmanto Copyright (c) 2024 Fri, 22 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Elephantopus scaber L. Ethanolic Leaves Extract Modulates IL-2 Production and T-Lymphocyte Activation in Pulmonary Fibrosis Mice Model <p>Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic disease characterized by progressive connective tissue deposition that replaces healthy lung tissue. This study aimed to investigate the effect of <em>Elephantopus scaber</em> L. Ethanol Extract (ESEE) treatment on the relative number of IL-2 cytokine and lymphocyte activation in bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis mice model. Fifty-six male BALB/c mice were divided into seven treatment groups: N (normal); V or vehicle (corn oil); PF or Pulmonary Fibrosis (BLM 2<sup>-1</sup>); Dex (Dexamethasone 3<sup>-1</sup> + BLM); D1-D3 (ESEE at doses of 0.0504, 0.1008, and 0.2016<sup>-1</sup> BW + BLM). ESEE, dexamethasone, and corn oil were administered orally, followed by intraperitoneal bleomycin injection daily for 14 days. Mice were dissected on days 7 and 14, and spleens were isolated to analyze cell populations expressing CD4<sup>+</sup>IL-2<sup>+</sup>, CD8<sup>+</sup>IL-2<sup>+</sup>, CD4<sup>+</sup>CD62L<sup>+</sup>, and CD8<sup>+</sup>CD62L<sup>+</sup>. The results showed that bleomycin injection could increase the relative number of IL-2 and decrease the relative number of naive T cells compared to normal mice. ESEE treatment significantly reduced the relative number of IL-2, thus decreasing naive T cell activation after one week of bleomycin injection compared to the mice model. In contrast, the increased IL-2 production led to the increasing naive T cell activation after two weeks of bleomycin injection. Therefore, ESEE treatment has the potential to maintain homeostasis through modulation of IL-2 production and T-lymphocyte activation in the pulmonary fibrosis mice model.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Elephantopus scaber</em>, IL-2, lymphocytes, mice, pulmonary fibrosis.</p> Fathiyah Nurul Izzah, Yuyun Ika Christina, Dinia Rizqi Dwijayanti, Muhaimin Rifa'i, Muhammad Sasmito Djati Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Tapak Liman (Elephantopus scaber L.) Leaves Ethanol Extract Improves the Production of IL-6 and IL-17 Cytokines in Mice with Bleomycin-induced Pulmonary Fibrosis <p>IL-6 and IL-17 are pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines that increase pulmonary fibrosis due to lung alveolar epithelial cell damage. Tapak liman leaves (<em>Elephantopus scaber</em> L.) have anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic properties. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the <em>Elephantopus scaber</em> L. ethanol extract (ESEE) on IL-6 and IL-17 produced by CD4<sup>+</sup> and CD8<sup>+</sup> in the bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mice model. Fifty-six male BALB/c mice will be divided into seven groups consisting of healthy mice (N), vehicle mice (V), pulmonary fibrosis (PF), Dexamethasone (DEX) as a drug control, and three doses of ESEE (0.0504, 0.1008, and 0.2016<sup>-1</sup> BW). ESEE will be administered orally, followed by intraperitoneal bleomycin injection for 14 days. Mice are then dissected on days 7 and 14, and the spleen will be isolated for analysis of the expression of IL-6 and IL-17. The results showed that ESEE effectively reduced levels of IL-6 and IL-17 cytokines produced by CD4<sup>+</sup> and CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells, and doses three of ESEE (0.2016<sup>-1</sup> BW) (0.2016<sup>-1</sup> BW) showed the most effective reduction activity than the Dexamethasone group. The treatment was proven to reduce the expression of IL-6 and IL-17 in mice with a model of pulmonary fibrosis.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>bleomycin, <em>Elephantopus scaber</em> L., IL-6, IL-17, pulmonary fibrosis. </p> Sarah Nahdah Nabilah, Yuyun Ika Christina, Dinia Rizqi Dwijayanti, Muhaimin Rifa’i, Muhammad Sasmito Djati Copyright (c) 2024 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Curcumin (Curcuma xanthorriza) and Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale var. rubrum) Ethanol Extract on Improvement of Mice Sperm Quality Exposed by Monosodium Glutamate <p>Temulawak (<em>Curcuma xanthorriza</em>) and red ginger (<em>Zingiber officinale</em> var. rubrum Theilade) contain antioxidant compounds that play an important role in inhibiting the negative effects of the excessive administration of free radicals. Excessive free radicals affect the spermatogenesis process. Which results in decreased sperm quality. This research determined the effect of administering ethanol extract of ginger and red ginger on the sperm quality of mice exposed to MSG. This study used 25 male mice (<em>Mus musculus</em>), aged 2.5 – 3 months and weighing 25 – 30 g, which were randomly divided into five groups: P0 (control), P1 MSG 4 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> bw, P2 MSG 4 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> bw and <em>C. xanthorriza</em> extract 0.2 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> bw, P3 MSG 4 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> bw and <em>Z. officinale</em> extract 0.4 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> bw, P4 4 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> bw, and a combination of <em>C. xanthorriza</em> extract 0.1 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> bw and <em>Z. officinale</em> extract 0.2 mg.g<sup>-1</sup> bw, MSG, and all extracts were administered orally for 30 days. On the 31<sup>st</sup> day, the mice were dissected, and epididymis was collected for sperm quality analysis, such as motility, viability, abnormality, and spermatozoa concentration. Subsequently, the sperm quality data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA through the SPSS 16.0 program for Windows (P&lt;0.05), followed by Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test. The addition of both single and combination from <em>C. xanthorriza</em> and <em>Z. officinale</em> can ameliorate motility, viability, and spermatozoa compared with the group that was only given by MSG. Thus, adding temulawak (<em>C. xanthorriza</em>) and red ginger (<em>Z. officinale</em>) ethanolic extract can also ameliorate the mice's sperm quality.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>C. xanthorriza</em>, MSG<em>, </em>sperm quality,<em> Z. officinale</em></p> Niken Herny Lidya Aprilia, Sri Rahayu, Agung Pramana Warih Marhendra Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 19 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Preventive Effect of Antioxidant From Purple Rosella Yoghurt on Duodenum and Colon Histopathology of Rattus norvegicus Exposed to Rhodamine B And Saccharin <p>Rodhamine B and Saccharin are often misused by food producers as food additive, which, if their use is not monitored, can produce free radicals that cause oxidative stress conditions in the body, leading to dangerous damage to the body. The addition of purple rosella in yoghurt can increase the functional value of the yoghurt, namely increasing the antioxidant content. The purpose of this study was to determine the benefits of giving purple rosella yoghurt in preventing damage to the duodenum and colon of (<em>Rattus norvegicus)</em> caused by Rodhamine B and Saccharin. This study used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 28 male <em>R</em><em>.</em><em> novergicus</em>, <em>Wistar</em> strain in aged 8-12 weeks. Group K was not given any treatment; R was given Rodhamine B, S was given Saccharin, KRS was given Rodhamine B and Saccharin, YR was given Rodhamine B and yoghurt, YS was given Saccharin and yogurt, YRS was given Rodhamine B, Saccharin and yogurt. The dose of Rodhamine B was 22.5<sup>-1</sup>, Saccharin was 157.77<sup>-1</sup>, and the volume of yoghurt was 1 mL.head<sup>-1</sup>. They were administered orally with a gastric tube for 14 days. The concentration of purple rosella extract added to yoghurt was 15% (v/v). Parameters were observed in histopathology of the duodenum and colon with the scoring method. Data analysis was done with the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Mann-Whitney test. The KRS group showed the heaviest damage, namely necrosis, villi erosion, and inflammatory cell infiltration of &gt;75% of the total visual field in the duodenum and colon. The YR, YS, and YRS groups showed significant changes compared to the R, S, and KRS groups, namely necrosis, villous erosion, and inflammatory cell infiltration, which appeared to be 25-50% of the total visual field. However, this did not match the condition of group K, which appeared to be &lt;25% of the total visual field. The provision of purple rosella yoghurt can prevent 50% damage to the duodenum and colon of <em>Rattus novergicus</em> due to Rodhamine B and Saccharin.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>colon, duodenum, Rodhamine B, Saccharin, yoghurt.</p> Ajeng Erika Prihastuti Haskito, Bintari Nariswari, Anna Safitri, Aldila Noviatri, Handayu Untari, Citra Sari Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 19 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Histological and Biochemical Evaluation of the Protective Potential of Ascorbate and Alpha-Tocopherol against Cypermethrin-Induced Toxicity <p>The unrestricted and unsystematic use of cypermethrin pesticides has detrimental effects on the organs, ranging from short-term sickness to long-term effects. The ameliorating effect of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbate was investigated singly and in combination with cypermethrin-induced oxidative stress using murine models. Additionally, the livers and kidneys of rats were histologically evaluated. Twenty-five (25) adult male Wistar rats with an average weight of 190 g were allocated randomly into five groups consisting of five rats each. Group I consists of the unexposed control rats, while rats in groups II-V were the test group exposed to cypermethrin at standard doses of 10<sup>-1</sup> bw. While rats in group II were exposed and untreated, group III-V was administered with ascorbate (5000<sup>-1</sup> bw), alpha-tocopherol (3000<sup>-1</sup> bw), and co-administered with both vitamins at their standard doses, respectively. Regimen administration was by gavage for 28 days, and while the vitamins were administered daily, cypermethrin exposure was done twice a week. At the end of the experiment, rats were euthanized, and blood obtained via cardiac puncture was used for biochemical analysis, while the liver and kidneys excised were processed for histopathological evaluation. Results revealed elevated aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and creatinine levels. At the same time, a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activities was observed in the test group (p&lt;0.05). Additionally, treatment with ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol co-administration reversed the biochemical parameters in the exposed rats. Conclusively, ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol ameliorate oxidative damage associated with cypermethrin exposure.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Cypermethrin, Histopathology, Pesticides, Toxicity, Vitamins.</p> Temidayo Adeniyi, Akinpelu Moronkeji, Akinrimisi Fikayomi Copyright (c) 2024 Tue, 19 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000