The Journal of Experimental Life Science <p>Welcome to The Journal of Experimental Life Science (JELS), a scientific journal published by the Postgraduate School of Brawijaya University. Colleagues can access JELS articles on published scientific papers in <em>review, short reports,</em> and <em>articles</em> in <em>Life Sciences</em> especially biology, biotechnology, nanobiology, molecular biology, botany, microbiology, genetics, neuroscience, pharmacology, toxicology, and <em>Applied Life Science</em> including fermentation technology, food science, immunotherapy, proteomics and other fields related to life matter.</p> en-US Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br /><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol> (Wenny Bekti Sunarharum) (Jehan Ramdani Haryati) Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Isolation and Identification of Rhizosphere Bacteria Associated with Taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria <p>Taro is one of the food crops that has the potential to maintain food security. It has a high carbohydrate content and nutrients with a low glycemic index value. Taro is widely cultivated with intercropping techniques, especially in Kedungkandang District, Malang City. However, this technique caused a decrease in talas tubers production with only 7-10 tons ha-<sup>1</sup>. This number was lower than the total optimal production with 20.7 tons ha-<sup>1</sup> of taro tubers. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), one of the most potential biofertilizers, can solve this problem with abilities such as phosphate-solubilizing, production of IAA, and nitrogen fixation. This research aimed to analyze the potency and identify the species of taro rhizosphere bacteria that had the best ability as PGPR agents. Taro rhizosphere bacteria were isolated using Pikovskaya medium and TSA (Tryptic Soy Agar) respectively. The PGPR abilities were evaluated on the phosphate-solubilizing, production of IAA, and nitrogen fixation. A total of 12 isolates for phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and ten isolates of IAA-producing bacteria. The highest concentration of phosphate solubilization was P1 isolate, with the concentration of 6.8 μg.mL<sup>-1</sup>; while I4 isolate had the highest potency for IAA production with the concentration of 23.11 μg.mL<sup>-1</sup>. Isolates P1 and I4 were selected for the nitrogen fixation ability test. P1 isolate shows the highest ammonia concentration of 2.52 μg.mL-<sup>1</sup>, and it was identified as <em>Stenotrophomonas rhizophila</em> with a similarity of 99.91% with <em>Stenotrophomonas rhizophila</em> R2A2 67. The potential isolates can be used as PGPR agents or biofertilizers to increase the production of taro plants. </p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Colocasia esculenta</em>, IAA, Nitrogen, PGPR, Phosphate.</p> Feybe Makitalentu, Irfan Mustafa, Suharjono Suharjono Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal of Experimental Life Science Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Phaleria macrocarpa Leaves Extract Reduce Tumors Growth and Improve Histological Changes of Liver and Kidney on 4T1 Breast Cancer Mice Model <p>Breast cancer is a type of cancer that highly occurs globally and causes death cases. Of the many ways of treating breast cancer, chemotherapy is the most recommended, even though it causes various disturbing side effects. Therefore, alternative medicine using bioactive compounds of medicinal plants has begun to be widely used, for example, <em>Phaleria macrocarpa</em>, a plant native to Indonesia with anticancer and antioxidant activity. The liver and kidneys are important organs that function to maintain body homeostasis. The use of crude extracts of medicinal plants often causes damage to those organs at inappropriate doses. This research aimed to get an effective dose for reducing breast cancer growth and is safe for the liver and kidneys. A total of 36 mice were divided into six groups, including healthy control, cancer control, cisplatin, and three doses of <em>P. macrocarpa extract</em> (58.9, 117.8, and 235.6<sup>-1</sup>). The experimental animals were injected using a 4T1 cell line and treated orally using <em>P. macrocarpa</em> leaf ethanol extract for two and three weeks. The tumor volume of mice was measured periodically. At the end of treatment, mice were sacrificed, and their liver and kidney organs were isolated. Both organs were then prepared for H&amp;E staining and observed using a microscope. The results showed that a dose of 58.9<sup>-1</sup> and 117.8<sup>-1</sup> of <em>P. macrocarpa</em> extract could reduce tumor volume by more than 90%, and the 117.8<sup>-1</sup> dose is the safest dose to use because it does not affect the kidney and cause chronic damage to liver tissue.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>extract, kidney, liver, tissue damage, tumor.</p> Lela - Aminullah, Yuyun Ika Christina, Muhaimin - Rifa'i, Muhammad Sasmito Djati Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal of Experimental Life Science Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Microplastics in Water and Biofilm Matrices in Lahor Reservoirs, East Java, Indonesia <p>One of the aquatic ecosystems that are very susceptible to contamination is the reservoir ecosystem. Reservoirs have different characteristics from other water bodies because they receive continuous water input from the river that flows through them. The river water contains organic and inorganic materials that can cause pollution caused by various kinds of human activities. The pollutant that is currently getting more attention is microplastics. Hence, various ways are developed to monitor the presence of microplastics in environments. The biotic component that may adsorb and accumulate microplastics is microbes that formed biofilm matrices as a predominant habitat. This study analyzes the presence of microplastics in water and biofilm matrices in Lahor Reservoir. The water parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and flow velocity) were also measured. Samplings were carried out at three stations, namely station A (inlet channel), station B (middle), and station C (outlet channel). This study revealed that water quality parameters were still relatively good according to the environment's quality standards. The average value of microplastic abundance in water at station A was 0.0013 particles.mL<sup>-1</sup>, station B was 0.00083 particles.mL<sup>-1</sup>, and station C was 0.00072 particles.mL<sup>-1</sup>. The average abundance of microplastics in the biofilm at station A, station B, and station C was 7.55 particles.g<sup>-1</sup>, 7.26 particles.g<sup>-1</sup>, and 4.59 particles.gram<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. This study indicates that the abundance of microplastics in the biofilm in the Lahor Reservoir was thousands of times higher than in the water. According to the results of this study, the biofilm can be used as a biological agent in monitoring the presence of microplastics in aquatic ecosystems such as the Lahor Reservoir, East Java, Indonesia.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Aquatic Ecosystem, Biofilm, Microbial Ecology, Microplastics, Water Pollutant.</p> Putri Rahayu Pertiwi, Mohammad Mahmudi, Zulkisam Pramudia, Andi Kurniawan Copyright (c) 2022 The Journal of Experimental Life Science Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Active Detergent Ingredients on Successful Fertilization and Embryo Development of Sea urchins Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus, 1758) <p>The success of fertilization and development of sea urchin embryos <em>Tripneustes gratilla</em> can be used as a bioindicator of the water quality against the accumulation of pollutants. One of the contaminants that are often used is detergent with an active ingredient in the form of LAS. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of LAS on the success of fertilization and development of sea urchin embryos. This research was conducted in the Zoology Laboratory, Pattimura University, Ambon. <em>Tripneustes gratilla</em> were treated with exposure to the active ingredient LAS with a concentration of 0.0; 0.5; 1, and 2 mg.L<sup>-1</sup>. The parameter used to assess the success of fertilization is the formation of membrane fertilization. Parameters of embryo development are the division of 2, 4 , 8 , 16 , and 32 cells to form a morula, blastula, and hatching blastula. The results showed that the active ingredient of detergent LAS with a concentration of 0.5 mg.L<sup>-1</sup> caused delays in the process of fertilization and embryo development. Meanwhile, the active ingredient LAS with concentrations of 1 and 2 mg.L-<sup>1</sup> caused failure in the fertilization process and the embryonic development process of <em>T. gratilla</em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Detergent, embryo, fertilization, <em>Tripneustes gratilla.</em></p> Aprilia Paskarani Molle, Agung Pramana Warih Marhendra, Sri Rahayu Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Expression of IL-17 on Breast Cancer Mice Treated by Combination of Phyllanthus Urinaria and Catharanthus roseus Extract <p class="Address" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph;"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Calibri','sans-serif';">This study aimed to evaluate the effect of combination <em>Phyllanthus urinaria</em> and <em>Catharanthus roseus</em> in breast cancer mice based on the expression of IL-17. 7,12-Dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA) was injected intraperitoneally into normal mice at dose 1.5<sup>-1</sup> weight to obtain breast cancer mice. Total of 24 experimental mice divided into normal mice (N), breast cancer mice (K), breast cancer mice with cisplatin (C) treatment (5<sup>-1</sup> weight), breast cancer mice with combination extract Dose 1 (<em>P. urinaria</em> 500<sup>-1</sup> weigt + <em>C. roseus</em><sup>-1</sup> weight), breast cancer mice with combination extract Dose 2 (<em>P. urinaria</em> 1000<sup>-1</sup> weight + <em>C. roseus</em><sup>-1</sup> weight), and breast cancer with combination extract Dose 3 (<em>P. urinaria</em> 2000<sup>-1</sup> weight + <em>C. roseus</em> 375<sup>-1</sup> weight). Cheral was given orally for 14 days. The level of IL-17 was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. The combination can suppress the expression of IL-17 which down regulation of IL-17 indicate a good prognosis for the breast cancer mice, for 6.17% in breast cancer condition to 0.93% with Dose 3 treatment. The combination can be used as immunomodulatory agent in humoral immunity through the regulation of IL-17.</span></p> <p class="Address" style="margin-top: 6.0pt; text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph;"><strong><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Calibri','sans-serif';">Keywords</span></strong><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; font-family: 'Calibri','sans-serif';">: Breast cancer, <em>Catharanthus roseus</em>, IL-17, <em>Phyllanthus urinaria</em></span></p> Aya Shofiyah, M. Sasmito Djati, Muhaimin Rifa'i Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000